The pipelines that are used in transporting crude oil and petroleum products are often installed in adverse environments and subjected to varying operational conditions that frequently expose them to deterioration, mainly in the form of corrosion. Such pipelines are also…
Safety is a key concern in Maritime and Oil & Gas production operations. To maintain crew, asset and environmental safety in the offshore environment, certain routines and regulatory inspections are mandatory. These checks serve to ensure that assets such as…
Overview of basic phased array technology theory
Devices using phased arrays are steadily becoming more important in the ultrasonic NDT field compared to when commercial ultrasonic instruments relied entirely on single element transducers that used piezoelectric crystal to generate and receive sound waves.
Phase shifting, or phasing, is in turn a way of controlling constructive and destructive interaction of waves by time-shifting wave fronts that originate from two or more sources. It can be used to bend, steer, or focus the energy of a wave front. Normally, A phased array system is centered around a specialized ultrasonic transducer that contains many individual elements (characteristically from 16 to 256) that can be pulsed separately in a programmed form.
Over the years there have been significant studies in various parts of the world on the cost of corrosion and how it affects a country’s economy. NACE International, the worldwide corrosion authority, released its 2016 IMPACT study which examines the current role of corrosion management in industry and government, and establishes best practices. The Study estimates the global cost of corrosion to be as high as US$2.5 trillion. The IMPACT study emphasizes the need for strategic decision making across all industries where corrosion is concerned.
Simply defined, corrosion is the breaking down or destruction of a material, especially a metal, through chemical reactions. The most common form of corrosion is rusting, which occurs when iron combines with oxygen and moisture.